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Gripla

						vILHjÁLMuR ÁRnASon
An etHoS In tRAnSfoRMAtIon:
ConfLICtInG vALueS In tHe SAGAS
this paper is divided into two parts. In the first part, I discuss how 
interpretations of saga morality harbour different conceptions of honour. I 
am critical of attempts to analyze the ?moral outlook? of the sagas in terms 
of ideas and character traits, taken out of social context. though I stress 
the close relationship between saga morality and social structure, I warn 
against the tendency to reduce morality to a mere function of social proc­
esses. It follows from my basic approach that in order to compare ethical 
models and value orientations, thorough knowledge and analysis of the 
societies in question is required. I lack the resources to evaluate to what 
extent saga morality is unique but I rely largely on jesse Byock?s analyses 
of medieval Icelandic society which provide reasons for showing why the 
saga virtues take on a distinctive form. 
In the second part of the paper, I argue that the overarching values 
related to unconditional claims for honour on the one hand, and social 
need for peace on the other hand, exemplify a tension between two differ­
ent types of morality. I discuss examples of classical virtues in Njál?s saga 
which require both genuine moral analysis but also awareness of how they 
are channelled in distinctive ways because of the special social and political 
structure of the Icelandic free State. this structure relies heavily on per­
sonal characteristics and the saga demonstrates how virtues are by them­
selves inadequate to solve the main task of morality. I argue that the 
uniqueness of saga morality resides primarily in describing virtues and 
political processes that contribute to peaceful settlements.
Gripla XX (2009): 217?240.

					
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