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Skįldskaparmįl

						Saint Olafs Dream House                                       187
Taken together the symbols represented by numbers and directions suggest
that not only the dome but the whole house represents the cosmos. The ground
plan of the house is then a cosmogram, a projection of the heavenly design, with
emphasis on the centre, cardinal directions and the circular form of the universe,24
but also on solar movements.
Esoteric Meaning of Four Times Three
In the 12th—13th century we find far reaching esoteric interpretations tied to
cosmological features like those in our house. The Icelandic Homily Book from
about 1200 provides a comprehensive example of the multiple symbolism
associated with the four triplets.25 The symbolism is explained in connection with
the ember days, which are three days of fast and prayer four times a year, once for
every calendar season. The total number of ember days is twelve, "as there are
twelve months in a year". The homily explains that Moses ordered the fast for the
sake of fertility and connects the ember days with the annual cycle of sowing,
germinating, ripening and harvesting. The book then proceeds to explain the
esoteric meaning of the ember days:
Four ember days symbolize the commandments of the four gospels. Three ember days
four times, signify faith in the trinity which is revealed in the four gospels. A total of
twelve ember days stand for the doctrine of twelve apostles ... These ember days shall
be observed in spring, summer, autumn and winter. Spring symbolizes our youth,
because that is when we gain our physical strength, like the sun in spring. Summer
signifies maturiry, because then the body has gained full strength, Iike the summer has
gained all the warmth of the sun. Autumn symbolizes old age, because so dwindles
physical strength as that of the sun in the autumn. Winter means senility, because then
the body has lost all its strength and warmth, just as the winter is cold and devoid of
sunshine.26 He who faithfully obeys the commandments of God in youth, at maturity,
at old age and when senile, observes correcdy all the ember days. (pp. 49-50.)27
movements of the seven circles which the sun, moon and five planets move within. That is called
celestial harmony. Plato said that these stars were living beings and possessed senses and were
eternal.") The reference to Plato is in Timaeus 38. The association between the sun and the
harmony is noted by Macrobius (Saturnalia 1.19.15), Martianus Capella (The Marriage of
Philology and'Mercury §12) and Alan of Lille (Anticlaudianus, book4). Someofthemanuscripts
of Rauðúlfsþáttrhave the ratio 20:60, which is also one of the consonances, i.e. an octave and
a fifth. The number 60 (or 4 X 60) has a direct solar reference (60 minutes and 24 (=4 x 6) hours).
24 Cf.Lurker(1972).
2' De Leuw van Weenen (ed. 1993). Later references and textual citation will be from the edition
of Sigurbjörn Einarsson etal. 1993.
2" See Burrow (1986) and Sears (1986), also Bernardus Silvestris Cosmographia: Microcosmos, Ch.
5; Maurmann (1975 and 1976, p. 190). See also Fig. 2 in this paper and correspondences
between the cardinal directions, seasons, ages of man and the four humours in the Icelandic
manuscripts AM 624 4to and AM 435 12 mo (Kálund 1917-18, pp. 27 and 98). Isidore of
Seville (EtymologiaeV. 35. 8) connected the seasons and the cardinal directions.
7 Fernir imbrudagar merkja boðorð fögurra guðspjalla. Þrír imbrudagar jjórum sinnum haldnir
merkja þrenningartrúu þá, er oss er sýnd ífórum guðspjöllum. Tólfsamtaldir imbrudagar merkja
					
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