Leyfi til að elska - jan. 2023, Blaðsíða 21

Leyfi til að elska - jan. 2023, Blaðsíða 21
behaviors toward their abusers—rather, the professionals indicated that the vast majority of abused children engaged in attachment- enhancing behaviors. These results indicate that when there is a justified reason for rejecting a parent, such as with severe child phys- ical abuse, children do not engage in such behaviors. 7  . Warshak RA: When evaluators get it wrong: false positive IDs and parental alienation. Psychol Publ Pol Law 2020, 26:58–68, https://doi.org/10.1037/law0000216. This review paper addresses many misconceptions about parental alienation that mental health and legal professionals make when working with clients, which can lead to misdiagnoses and inappropriate interventions. The author also highlights that evaluators, judges, and other experts who do not consider the nuances of alienating behaviors will likely make false conclusions. 8. Baker AJL, Eichler A: The linkage between parental alienation behaviors and child alienation. J Divorce Remarriage 2016, 57: 475–484, https://doi.org/10.1080/10502556.2016.1220285. 9. Hands AJ, Warshak RA: Parental alienation among college students. Am J Fam Ther 2011, 39:431–443, https://doi.org/ 10.1080/01926187.2011.575336. 10. Johnston JR, Walters MG, Olesen NW: The psychological functioning of alienated children in custody disputing fam- ilies: an exploratory study. Am J Forensic Psychol 2005, 23: 39–64. 11. Harman JJ, Warshak RA, Lorandos D: Parental alienation research: an enquiry into the epistemology of social science. Manuscript in preparation. Department of Psychology, Colorado State University. In preparation. 12  . Harman JJ, Leder-Elder S, Biringen Z: Prevalence of adults who are the targets of parental alienating behaviors and their impact: results from three national polls. Child Youth Serv Rev 2019, 106:1–13, https://doi.org/10.1016/ jy.childyouth.2019.104471. Three samples selected to be representative of the U.S. and Canadian populations were collected to assess prevalence of parental alienating behavior exposure and outcomes. Using different measures, the au- thors determined that approximately 22 million American adults are the unreciprocating targets of parental alienating behaviors, and over 4 million children are moderately to severely alienated from a parent. Alienated parents also reported high levels of depression and trauma symptoms, and nearly half had considered suicide within the last year. 13. Sharples A, Harman, JJ, Lorandos D. Findings of abuse in fam- ilies affected by parental alienation. Manuscript submitted for publication. Department of Psychology, University of Toronto. In preparation. 14. Harman JJ, Kruk E, Hines D: Parental alienating behaviors: an unacknowledged form of family violence. Psychol Bull 2018, 144:1275–1299, https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000175. 15. Baker AL: Adult children of parental alienation syndrome: breaking the ties that bind. Norton & Co; 2007. 16. Baker AJL, Ben Ami N: Adult recall of childhood psychological maltreatment in adult children of divorce: prevalence and associations with outcomes. J Divorce Remarriage 2011, 52: 203–219, https://doi.org/10.1080/10502556.2011.556973. 17. Baker AJL, Chambers J: Adult recall of childhood exposure to parental conflict: unpacking the black box of parental alien- ation. J Divorce Remarriage 2011, 52:55–76, https://doi.org/ 10.1080/10502556.2011.534396. 18. Bretherton I, Munholland KA: Internal working models in attachment relationships: a construct revisited. In Handbook of attachment: theory, research, and clinical applications. Edited by Cassidy J, Shaver PR, The Guilford Press; 1999:89–111. 19  . Bentley C, Matthewson M: The not-forgotten child: alienated adult children’s experience of parental alienation. Am J Fam Ther 2020, 48:509–529, https://doi.org/10.1080/ 01926187.2020.1775531. This interview study of adults who were alienated as children described abuse suffered at the hands of the alienating parent. The children also reported experiencing problems with current relationships, depression, anxiety, low-self-worth, guilt, and reduced or delayed educational and career attainment. 20. Haines J, Matthewson M, Turnbull M: Understanding and man- aging parental alienation: a guide to assessment and treatment. Routledge; 2019. 21. Baker AJL, Darnall D: Behaviors and strategies of parental alienation: a survey of parental experiences. J Divorce Remarriage 2006, 45:97–124, https://doi.org/10.1300/ J087v45n01_06. 22. Poustie C, Matthewson M, Balmer S: The forgotten parent: the targeted parent perspective of parental alienation. J Fam Issues 2018, 39:3298–3323, https://doi.org/10.1177/ 0192513X18777867. 23  . Clawar SS, Rivlin BV: Children held hostage: identifying brain- washed children, presenting a case, and crafting solutions. American Bar Association; 2013. This book describes a groundbreaking study of over 1,000 families who were involved in custody disputes and dealing with a parent who was on an active campaign to brainwash their child to hate the other parent. The book details specific strategies that were used by the parents, interventions that failed to work in remedying the problem (e.g., indi- vidual therapy for the child alone), and how this issue affects the entire family. 24. Barber BK, Buehler C: Family cohesion and enmeshment: different constructs, different effects. J Marriage Fam 1996, 58:433–441, https://doi.org/10.2307/353507. 25. Baker AJL: The long-term effects of parental alienation: a qualitative research study. Am J Fam Ther 2005, 33:289–302, https://doi.org/10.1080/01926180590962129. 26. Moné JG, Biringen Z: Assessing parental alienation: empirical assessment of college student’s recollections of parental alienation during their childhoods. J Divorce Remarriage 2012, 53:157–177, https://doi.org/10.1080/10502556.2012.663265. 27. López TJ, Iglesias VEN, García PF: Parental alienation gradient: strategies for a syndrome. Am J Fam Ther 2014, 42: 217–231, https://doi.org/10.1080/01926187.2013.820116. 28  . Bernet W, Gregory N, Rohner RP, Reay KM: Measuring the difference between parental alienation and estrangement: the PARQ-Gap. J Forensic Sci 2020, 65:1225–1234, https://doi.org/ 10.1111/1556-4029.14300. This paper compares ratings of acceptance and rejection of parents among alienated children, neglected children, children from intact families, and children from divorced families. The PARQ measure was able to differentiate alienated children from the others, as they had the highest gaps in scores comparing their parents. Lack of ambivalence is one of several indicators of parental alienation, so this paper indicates that the measure is one way that can help distinguish parental alien- ation from other forms of contact refusal. 29. Blagg N, Godfrey E: Exploring parent-child relationships in alienated versus neglected/emotionally abused children using the Bene-Anthony family relations test. Child Abuse Rev 2018, 27:486–496, https://doi.org/10.1002/car.2537. 30. Coleman JS: Social capital in the creation of human capital. Am J Sociol 1988, 94:95–120. 31. Wu Z, Schimmele CM, Hou F: Family structure, academic characteristics, and postsecondary education. Fam Relat 2015, 64:205–220. 32. Freeman M: International child abduction: the effects. Liverp Law Rev 2006, 18:167–183, https://doi.org/10.1007/ BF02486521. 33. Maslow AH: A theory of human motivation. Psychol Rev 1943, 50:370–396, https://doi.org/10.1037/h0054346. 34. Ben Ami N, Baker AJL: The long-term correlates of childhood exposure to parental alienation on adult self-sufficiency and well-being. Am J Fam Ther 2012, 40:169–183, https://doi.org/ 10.1080/01926187.2011.601206. 35. Bernet W, Gregory N, Reay KM, Rohner RP: An objective measure of splitting in parental alienation: the Parental Acceptance–Rejection Questionnaire. J Forensic Sci 2018, 63: 776–783, https://doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.13625. 36. Bowlby J: Attachment and loss. In Separation: anxiety and anger, vol. 2. Basic Books; 1973. Parental alienation and loss Harman et al. 11 www.sciencedirect.com Current Opinion in Psychology 2022, 43:7–12 parent during childhood describe a deep sense of grief, particularly regarding time lost with the alienated parent [19,25]. Conclusions Alienated children experience not just the loss of a parent-child relationshipdthey experience a corruption of reality that creates a loss of identity, childhood and innocence, as well as connections to their extended family and communities. Across these losses, the child is deprived of a multitude of supports and affordances that foster healthy development. Much is known about how exposure to PABs harm children. Now is the time to apply that knowledge to protect future generations of children from experiencing this pernicious form of childhood maltreatment. Funding This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for- profit sectors. Conflict of interest statement Nothing declared. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank Amanda Sillars for sharing her experience as an alienated child and mother by providing the opening quote for this article. References Papers of particular interest, published within the period of review, have been highlighted as:  of special interest  of outstanding interest 1. Bernet W, Lorandos D: Preface. In Parental alienation—science and law. Edited by Lorandos D, Bernet W, Charles C. Thomas Publisher, Ltd; 2020. xiii–xviii. 2  . Verrocchio MC, Baker AJL, Marchetti D: Adult report of child- hood exposure to parental alienation at different develop- mental time periods. J Fam Ther 2018, 40:602–618, https:// doi.org/10.1111/1467-6427.12192(2018). This study of adults alienated as children drew associations between exposure to parental alienating behaviors and the experience of childhood maltreatment, regardless of the gender of the parent who was alienating the child. 3. Verrocchio MC, Baker AJL, Bernet W: Associations between exposure to parental alienating behaviors, anxiety, and depression in an Italian sample of adults. J Forensic Sci 2016, 61:692–698, https://doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.13046. 4. Harman JJ, Bernet W, Harman J: Parental alienation: the blossoming of a field of study. Curr Dir Psychol Sci 2019, 28: 1–6, https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721419827271. 5. Sims M, Rofail M: Grandparents with little or no contact with grandchildren- impact on grandparents. J Aging Stud 2013, 2: 2–7, https://doi.org/10.4172/2329-8847.1000117. 6  . Baker AJL, Miller S, Bernet W, Adebayo T: The assessment of the attitudes and behaviors about physically abused chil- dren: a survey of mental health professionals. J Child Fam Stud 2019, 28:3401–3411, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-019- 015225. This paper collected data from mental health providers who worked with severely abused children and had them report on the children’s behaviors and attitudes toward their abusive parents. This study is important, as it found that abused children did not engage in rejection Table 1 Impact of losses on the needs of the child. Need Parental role in meeting child’s needs Examples of impacts on the child due to parental alienation Physiological Buying food, clothing, housing, medicine. Fewer people to help with the procurement of food, clothing, housing, and medicine for the child. Safety Providing a clean and safe home with a predictable schedule of routines and caretaking. Fewer people to teach the child how to be safe, how to do chores, how to protect him/herself, and to protect the child from danger. Love and belonging Touching the child in a loving and affectionate manner, affirming the child’s acceptance and belonging to the extended family and community. Fewer people to touch the child in a loving and affectionate manner, affirming the child’s acceptance and belonging to the extended family and community. Esteem Creating opportunities for the child to make decisions and share his/her perspective which is valued. Fewer people to provide opportunities for the child to make decisions and share his/her perspective, which is valued. Self-actualization Providing the child with opportunities to make choices, express him or herself, explore sports and arts, develop skills, values, tastes, styles, and talents. Fewer people to provide the child with opportunities to make choices, express him or herself, explore sports and arts, develop skills, values, tastes, styles, and talents. These opportunities may not be sufficient but are necessary to promote self-actualization. Note. These categorical needs are based on Maslow’s [33] hierarchy of needs. 10 Separation, Social Isolation, and Loss Current Opinion in Psychology 2022, 43:7–12 www.sciencedirect.com 21 MISSIR SEM BÖRN UPPLIFA VIÐ ÚTILOKUN FRÁ FORELDRI JENNIFER J. HARMAN O.FL.


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