Ársrit Verkfræðingafjelags Íslands - 01.01.1914, Blaðsíða 32

Ársrit Verkfræðingafjelags Íslands - 01.01.1914, Blaðsíða 32
32 more wholesomness and beauty, in connection with the arrangement of the building. I mean hereby, that except in villa-quarters, the best thing would be to join the houses of every bloc »gable to gable,« then the pieces of ground belonging to each house would be behind the houses and seperated from each other only by a fence. Then all the pieces of ground would form one continuous area, hedged in by bouses on all hands. This would very likely give shelter enough as to allow the growth of trees 'and other vegetation, which would add to the beauty and healthfulness of the place. Circumstances permitting, gardens could be laid out between the houses and the streets. The arrangement could of course vary according to the different parts of the town. The proportion between occupied and unoccupied land is of course different in the middle of the town, or in other parts where the grounds are most expensive, and in quarters, where most of the buildings are private dwelling- houses, it is diff'erent in sparsely and in densely populated places. In that respect the building regula- tions now in force do not make any distinction be- tween the diííerent parts of the town, and the same height of houses is allowed everywhere, in reference to the breath of the streets and the area to be enclosed. It would be most natural here as in olher countries, to build the highest houses in the middle of the town and along the main streets. On the olher hand it is reasonable, here as elsewhere to keep the height of houses wilhin certain bounds. It would come to be seen, that a great height of houses is attended with more disadvantages than advantages. In the last years I have procured the newest building acts of our neighbourcountries. The Swedish way of seltling the question is most after my liking. 1907, a committee was appointed, consisting of mayors and architects froin different parts in the country; the work of this committee issued in a treatise: »Be- tánkande med förslag till byggnadsstadga för riket,« printed in Stockholm 1909. As the title shows, it contains building regulations for the kingdom on whole. I do not know whether this bill has become law as yet, but anyhow, we can learn a good deal from it. All towns in Sweden are, for instance, classi- fied according to the number of their inhabitants and their likely increase, the lowest group only being al- lowed to build twostoried houses. Wooden houses wilh more than two stories are nowhere allowed. This seems to me worthy of imitation. The greater a town is, the more reasonable is it to make the population dense and the houses high, and the greater is the possibility of procuring íire implements and life-saving apparalus. But theie it, of course, makes a great difl'erence, if the houses are built of a com- bustible material or not. In the building regulations now in force it is prohibited to build wooden houses higher than twostoried, or the height of the walls must not exceed 28 feet, but still habitation is al- lowed on the third floor, and garrets are allowed without any limitations. This has been carried so far, that the roofs of many twostoried-houses here are quite set with garrets, which is both objectionable and ridiculous. These houses are really threestoried, only more dangerous, more expensive and uglier. As a matter of course this should be altered in our new building regulations, and why should we allow a greater height of wooden houses, than is allowed in Sweden, the land of wood. I suppose opinions will' dill'er as to the height, which should be allowed to stonehouses. I think it is unnecessary to allow more than four stories or a height of 14—13 meters, up to the roof. In fourstoried houses there could be a question of demanding fire- proof floors, made from reinforced concrete — this would only be fair, such floors being hardly more ex- pensive than wooden ones. In stonehouses where more than two stories are inhabited (the dwellings being more than for instance 7 meters above the ground) the stairs should be fireproof. I do not wish to enter into a greater length as regards the arrangement of building in this town. Here has aiready been built so much, that there would be many and great difficullies in carrying out the proposed reforms, but in my opinion, of course everything possible should be done to promote a better arrangement. Now I have to mention the concrete and walls made from it. In our building regulations there are no provisions dealing wilh the different substances which might be used for concrete. Of course it is difficult to make such provisions both plain and un- mislakable, yet eazy to carry out when followed strictly. Still one thing, at least, could be amended, viz the size of the chips or of the gravel used for concrete. It is usually too coarse. It should be ord- ered that the broken stones used for ordinary con- crete (not reinforced) might not exceed 5 cm — in thicker walls 6 cm, the conditions being more closely defined in the building regulations. The chips used for reinforced concrete should be of a smaller size; in piers, for instance, where ironbars are needed, and in stairs and floors, the chips should not exceed 2,5—4 cm, according to what was considered most suitable. There should also be made provisions re- garding the sand used for concrele and plastering, the use of sand from stony hills should for instance be limited, if it did not fulfil certain requirements, also it should be prohibited to use salt substances

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